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:: Volume 22, Issue 6 (March-feburary 2017) ::
pajoohande 2017, 22(6): 336-345 Back to browse issues page
Astaxanthin as a potent neuroprotective agent
Fatemeh Mahboobifard , Masoumeh Jorjani *
Department of Pharmacology and Neurobioloy Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , msjorjani@sbmu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3300 Views)
Physiological differences between men and women explain the possible gender related differences in drug response. Gender could affect both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic of drugs. What makes it difficult to study about the pharmacological status of women is the underrepresentation of women in most clinical trials. Interestingly, among a few number of new drug registration that had sex analysis, at least 40% difference in pharmacokinetics between men and women has been distinguished. Gender specificity has been also reported with several pharmacokinetic parameters, including absorption, phase I and phase II of metabolism, drug distribution and exertion. In addition, sex-related pharmacodynamic response differences are being identified at the molecular level. Moreover, sex influences on pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are being studied. Hence, it would be most advisable for designers of preclinical and clinical studies to apply sex-based approaches and on the basis of these approaches, sex-based dosing recommendations becomes ubiquitous, by which patients experience more therapeutic effects and less adverse effects. On the other hand, it is certainly suggested that clinicians must have adequate attention to pharmacokinetic changes of drugs during pregnancy or consumption of oral contraceptives in order to adjust the dosage efficiently.
Keywords: Sex-related differences, Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamics
Full-Text [PDF 756 kb]   (652 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Medicine
Received: 2017 | Accepted: 2017 | Published: 2017
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Mahboobifard F, Jorjani M. Astaxanthin as a potent neuroprotective agent. pajoohande 2017; 22 (6) :336-345
URL: http://pajoohande.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-2455-en.html

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Volume 22, Issue 6 (March-feburary 2017) Back to browse issues page
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